Reconstructing housing and communities: the INA-Casa Plan
Rosalia Vittorini

Abstract
Among the Italian initiatives for social and material reorganization in the aftermath of WWII, the most interesting was undoubtedly the INA-Casa Plan. The plan was designed to counteract widespread unemployment in the construction sector and aimed to provide new and modern social housing to the poorer classes, thus simultaneously responding to the housing emergency. During the 14 years between 1949 and 1963, architects designed, and construction companies built a housing patrimony of remarkable quality, which now becomes an opportunity to develop strategies of urban revitalization.

Keywords
Modern Movement, Modern architecture, Modern housing, Post-war housing, Welfare architecture, Mass housing, Italian modern architecture, INA-Casa Plan, Arnaldo Foschini, Adalberto Libera, Urban revitalization strategies.

Issue 65
Year 2021
Pages 50-55
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.52200/65.A.UM4KVUFJ

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Conservation by consensus: heritage management in large housing estates
John Allan

Abstract
This study considers the role of management guidelines in regulating the pressures for change in large housing estates where heritage constraints are involved but where the use of formal enforcement procedures would be unrealistic and uneconomical. The author’s experience in creating such documents indicates the importance of cultivating a sustainable consensus among stakeholders that balances respect for and understanding of architectural and historic significance with a realistic acceptance of the need for change. The author suggests that the success of such instruments depends upon three crucial attributes – fairness, usability and resilience. The examples, all in London, include the Barbican, Golden Lane and Brownfield.

Keywords
Modern Movement, Modern architecture, Modern housing, Post-war housing, Welfare architecture, Mass housing, Heritage management guidelines, Architecture conservation strategies, London modern architecture, Barbican Estate, Chamberlin, Powell & Bon, Golden Lane Estate, Brownfield Estate, Ernő Goldfinger, Avanti Architects.

Issue 65
Year 2021
Pages 42-49
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.52200/65.A.F4UHCGJP

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The survival and resurrection of a “Bakema-experiment” in an Amsterdam garden city
Tim Nagtegaal

Abstract
There is a hidden gem in the Amsterdam garden cities. Jaap Bakema was the founder of an experiment in the 1950s. A piece of “Rotterdam in Amsterdam.” Based on the philosophy of an open society and the human scale. Forty years after completion, there is a call for renewal. The architect’s heritage ends up on the demolition list. Due to the economic crisis, demolition has been postponed and there was time for reflection. The neighborhood seems to survive the test of time. The careful renewal proves to be a great success. This is a story about the resurrection of a Bakema experiment.

Keywords
Modern Movement, Modern architecture, Modern housing, Post-war housing, Welfare architecture, Mass housing, Collective housing, Garden city, Amsterdam modern architecture, Jaap Bakema, Bakema-experiment, Bakemabuurt, Renovation of modern architecture.

Issue 65
Year 2021
Pages 36-41
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.52200/65.A.TZMSSTJ3

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Preserving a modern housing model: the restoration of Pedregulho Housing Neighborhood
Flávia Brito do Nascimento

Abstract
This paper examines the history of Pedregulho Housing Neighborhood, built between 1948 and 1960 by the Department of Popular Housing in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from the first concepts to the restoration in 2015. Conceived by the urbanists Carmen Portinho and Affonso E. Reidy, it became one of the most emblematic works of modern Brazilian architecture. After years of neglect, in 2015 housing Block A of the neighborhood underwent restoration, one of the only such projects on social housing complexes in Latin America. The paper discusses the housing complex’s history, focusing on the intervention and restoration project, its criteria and challenges, and also the aims and demands by the residents during the works.

Keywords
Modern Movement, Modern architecture, Modern housing, Post-war housing, Welfare architecture, Mass housing, Rio de Janeiro modern architecture, Pedregulho Housing Neighborhood, Carmen Portinho, Affonso Reidy, Restoration of modern architecture.

Issue 65
Year 2021
Pages 28-35
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.52200/65.A.EMTOIA80

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Housing explorations. Unidad Vecinal Portales in Santiago
Umberto Bonomo

Abstract
This article explores the contribution of Unidad Vecinal Portales – built in Santiago de Chile by the studio Bresciani, Valdés, Castillo y Huidobro – to the debates on social housing in Chile between the 1940s and 1960s. A series of radical decisions, put into action in the complex, demonstrate a deep exploration at the urban, typological, and aesthetic levels. This exploration has given life to an important case study in Chile and Latin- America, where urban and architectural challenges of the second half of the 20th century blend harmoniously

Keywords
Modern Movement, Modern architecture, Modern housing, Post-war housing, Welfare architecture, Mass housing, Santiago modern architecture, Unidad Vecinal Portales, Bresciani, Valdés, Castillo y Huidobro, Restoration of modern architecture.

Issue 65
Year 2021
Pages 22-27
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.52200/65.A.DTPWO1DY

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President Alemán Urban Housing Project
Louise Noelle

Abstract
The Centro Urbano Presidente Alemán, inaugurated in 1949, was a pioneer in more ways than one and can be considered as one of the most transcendent works of Mario Pani. It is the first Mexican high-rise housing complex, where many of the ideals of the European masters, especially Le Corbusier, are gathered together but with a design suited to its place and time. Mario Pani shattered the scheme of the single unit dwelling and proposed a density that allowed the presence of garden areas and integrated diverse services. Moreover, he invited the artist José Clemente Orozco to paint a mural, which he commenced on an undulating wall designed by him.

Keywords
Modern Movement, Modern architecture, Modern housing, Post-war housing, Welfare architecture, Mass housing, Mexican modern architecture, President Alemán Urban Housing Project, Mario Pani, José Clemente Orozco.

Issue 65
Year 2021
Pages 16-21
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.52200/65.A.8WSJWTA7

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Modernity and housing production in France after WWII
Joseph Abram

Abstract
After the collapse of 1940 and Occupation (1940-1944), France experienced a remarkable renewal after Liberation in 1944. Through reconstruction and intensive efforts to bring the country out of the housing crisis, the State set up a powerful production system, which based the expansion of the building sector on the concentration of investment in large companies. It was the era of the grands ensembles, of heavy prefabrication and giant construction sites. Initially well received by their inhabitants, these large housing complexes rapidly deteriorated and became ghettos. Despite the social difficulties that beset these neighborhoods, how can this important heritage of modernity be preserved today?

Keywords
Modern Movement, Modern architecture, Modern housing, Post-war housing, Welfare architecture, Mass housing, French modern architecture, French grands ensembles, Preservation of modern architecture.

Issue 65
Year 2021
Pages 8-15
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.52200/65.A.ZA6ULTGC

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The right to comfort in the century of the self
Zara Ferreira

Abstract
After the war, the world was divided between two main powers, a Western capitalist bloc led by the USA, and an Eastern communist bloc, driven by the USSR. From Japan to Mexico, the post-war years were ones of prosperous economic growth and profound social transformation. It was the time of re-housing families split apart and of rebuilding destroyed cities, but it was also the time of democratic rebirth, the definition of individual and collective freedoms and rights, and of belief in the open society envisaged by Karl Popper. Simultaneously, it was the time of the biggest migrations from the countryside, revealing a large faith in the city, and of baby booms, revealing a new hope in humanity. (...) Whether through welfare state systems, as mainly evidenced in Western Europe, under the prospects launched by the Plan Marshall (1947), or through the establishment of local housing authorities funded or semi-funded by the government, or through the support of private companies, civil organizations or associations, the time had come for the large-scale application of the principles of modern architecture and engineering developed before the war. From the Spanish polígonos residenciales to the German großsiedlungen, ambitious housing programs were established in order to improve the citizens’ living conditions and health standards, as an answer to the housing shortage, and as a symbol of a new egalitarian society: comfort would no longer only be found in bourgeois houses.

Keywords
Modern Movement, Modern architecture, Modern housing, Post-war housing, Welfare architecture, Mass housing, Modern comfort.

Issue 65
Year 2021
Pages 4-7
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.52200/65.A.J2ZX0IDZ

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Housing for the greatest number
Ana Tostões

Abstract
Addressing a broader vision, entitled “Housing for All”, this issue is dedicated to the welfare era, when governments across the world established ambitious housing programs to provide housing for the greatest number and improve the citizens’ living conditions, as a symbol of a modern and democratic society. This bold course of action involved radical changes in the built environment, through new approaches to architectural design and experiments in the use of materials and techniques, the creation of space, and social transformation. Nowadays, understanding how to deal with this legacy presents a major challenge, in a continuously changing context, from the technical obsolescence of buildings that no longer meet today’s demanding standards, or fast-moving sociocultural, political and economic values. The aim of this docomomo Journal 65 is to outline how these vast cultural and political ambitions were materialized in various countries, and to analyze the contemporary challenges they face. More than five decades later, are these buildings and neighborhoods resilient or obsolete? In addition to the changes that postmodern society has brought in ways of living, issues such as the demand for spatial and functional transformation, and the updating of regulations on fire, seismic stability, user safety and energy efficiency, are now part of the contemporary agenda. How can these sites be kept alive while satisfying sustainability and contemporary ideas of comfort?

Keywords
Modern Movement, Modern architecture, Modern housing, Post-war housing, Welfare architecture, Mass housing.

Issue 65
Year 2021
Pages 2-3
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.52200/65.A.O5TLBHP9

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Leonardo Mosso: the poetry of structure
Daniela Bosia, Tanja Marzi

Abstract
Leonardo Mosso (1926-2020) was able to combine art and architecture. He was a collector and an interpreter of 20th century culture that he shared and passed on to succeeding generations of students and collaborators who attended the Alvar Aalto Institute. For many, he was an unsung Maestro, a generous polymath, who maintained an extraordinary curiosity and child-like enthusiasm throughout his long life.

Keywords
Modern Movement, Modern architecture, Leonardo Mosso, Italian modern architecture.

Issue 64
Year 2021
Pages 89
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.52200/64.A.3QDP8M1X

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