The young Paulo Mendes da Rocha: Jockey Club of Goiás and a modernity project
Eline Caixeta, Christine Mahler

Abstract
The Jockey Club of Goiás, located in the city of Goiânia, in the interior of Brazil, was the first building to adopt the language of exposed concrete in this city, in addition to other attributes of architectural and urban relevance. This discussion aims to analyze the design approach, the tectonics, the urban setting, and its transcendence in the architect’s career. It examines the conception of the project and identifies similarities between this project and his future work

Keywords
Modern Movement, Modern architecture, Brazilian modern architecture, Jockey Club of Goiás, Paulo Mendes da Rocha.

Issue 65
Year 2021
Pages 114-117
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.52200/65.A.Z3VXHN16

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Torres Blancas, a Vertical Garden City
Alberto Sanz

Abstract
Torres Blancas, the building designed by Francisco Javier Sáenz de Oíza for the Huarte company, was built between 1964 and 1972. Its powerful sculptural form, the expressive use of bare concrete and its experimental nature make it an iconic example of Madrid’s architecture. Proposed as a vertical city with an organic emphasis, Torres Blancas is not the usual stack of flats, but a residential complex of independent housing units with garden terraces and the amenities of a small community. This building thus combines Le Corbusier’s unités d’habitation and Frank Lloyd Wright’s towers.

Keywords
Modern Movement, Modern architecture, Modern housing, Post-war housing, Welfare architecture, Mass housing, Madrid modern architecture, Torres Blancas, Francisco Sáenz de Oíza, Experimental architecture, Organic architecture.

Issue 65
Year 2021
Pages 108-113
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.52200/65.A.R36XTO0H

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The Chandigarh Sector
Sangeeta Bagga

Abstract
The neighborhood unit (Sector) in Chandigarh was conceived as a self-sufficient, repeated element to create the matrix of the city along with the hierarchical circulation system defined by the 7Vs to disburse traffic in an orderly manner. This arrangement was interfaced with a designed landscape at the behest of Le Corbusier and Dr. M. S. Randhawa whose passion for bio-aesthetics realized a city where landscape and built forms created a patina of the most charming capital of the modern world. Seven decades later, the city’s flowering landscape and modernist architecture continues to make it one of the best neighborhoods in which to reside

Keywords
Modern Movement, Modern architecture, Modern housing, Post-war housing, Welfare architecture, Mass housing, Indian modern architecture, Chandigarh, Le Corbusier, Pierre Jeanneret, Maxwell Fry, Jane Drew, Landscape architecture.

Issue 65
Year 2021
Pages 104-107
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.52200/65.A.YB2MNCH1

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Vegaviana, a colonization village: the rural “naturalness and simplicity” of modern Spanish heritage
Inmaculada Bote Alonso, Beatriz Montalbán Pozas

Abstract
The Instituto Nacional de Colonización built a series of villages all over Spain to support farmers who were working on the newly established irrigated lands. Vegaviana, which was projected by the architect José Luis Fernández del Amo, stands out among the almost 300 villages that were constructed, becoming a referent for INC colonization and also in modern Spanish architecture. Firstly, a brief contextual review is presented. Secondly, the emphasis is put on Vegaviana, and its presence in international contexts is analyzed, highlighting its outstanding low-cost design with local materials. This essay ends with a review from the current perspective.

Keywords
Modern Movement, Modern architecture, Modern housing, Post-war housing, Welfare architecture, Mass housing, Spanish modern architecture, Vegaviana colonization village, José Fernández del Amo, Vernacular modern architecture, Preservation of modern architecture.

Issue 65
Year 2021
Pages 98-103
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.52200/65.A.0RYF58D6

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Past Readings, Present Findings: on Intervening Emilio Duhart’s PDVN House
Alejandro Beals, Loreto Lyon

Abstract
Between 1963 and 1966 Emilio Duhart (1917-2006) worked on the design of this single-family house in what used to be the outskirts of Santiago. During this period, a series of younger collaborators worked on the project, transforming it continuously. Now, confronted with the task of refurbishing the house, we trace back and try to understand the project development by researching archival material. However, it is the process of physically dismantling damaged fabric – almost everything, besides the concrete structure – that really reveals the main principles behind the whole design process. A silent dialogue with architects already gone, which provides the guidelines to write just another chapter in the life of this structure.

Keywords
Modern Movement, Modern architecture, Modern single-family houses, Modern living space, Architecture of happiness, Emilio Duhart, PDVN 0458 house, Chilean modern architecture, Restoration of modern architecture .

Issue 64
Year 2021
Pages 84-87
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.52200/64.A.O232XY07

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Modern Movement Houses in the Colonial Capital City of Nairobi
Yasmin Shariff

Abstract
Architecturally, Nairobi was never a backwater. Modern architecture in Nairobi developed in the context of the tropical climate design vocabulary of Otto Königsberger (1908-1999), Maxwel Fry (1899-1987) and Jane Drew (1911-1996), within a racially segregated plan. Ideas and ideals of Modernism came with refugees, migrants and magazines from many cultures and places including South Africa, Europe, the Indian sub-continent and the Americas. Projects by internationally renowned architects and planners such as Herbert Baker (1862-1946), Ernst May (1886-1970) and Amyas Connell (1901-1980) set high standards of design. The Garden City Movement, International Congresses of Modern Architecture (CIAM), the Modern Architectural Research Group (MARS), and the work of many others was influential.

Keywords
Modern Movement, Modern architecture, Modern single-family houses, Modern living space, Architecture of happiness, Ernst May, Amyas Connell, Garden City Movement, Modern urban planning, Nairobi modern architecture, Tropical architecture.

Issue 64
Year 2021
Pages 80-83
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.52200/64.A.L3ZCOKJZ

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Visionary Prefab in the Modern Age: Deconstructing Keaton’s Films
Cristian Suau

Abstract
This essay analyses Buster Keaton’s masterpieces: One Week (1920); The Haunted House (1921) and The Electric House (1922). His filmic work reveals the montage of mass housing prefabrication in the Modern Age in the United States: repetition and mechanisation of the building production; generic layouts; and modular like–catalogue constructions. Rather than following a sequential building process, these cases are executed as mere accidents or flaws. Buster Keaton’s films however show ironically a non–standardized architecture. This study analyses and compares Keaton’s film production with Catalog Modern House, a prefab dwelling manufactured and shipped by Sears,Roebuck and Co in the 20th century.

Keywords
Modern Movement, Modern architecture, Buster Keaton, Prefabrication in architecture, Prefabricated houses, Modern documentation films, USA modern architecture.

Issue 44
Year 2011
Pages 81-85
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.52200/44.A.P2HWOVDV

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Architecture in Sudan: The Post–Independence Era (1956-1970). Focus on the Work of Abdel Moneim Mustafa
Omer S. Osman, Amira O. S. Osman, Ibrahim Z. Bahreldin

Abstract
This article is part of a study on the Sudanese social and political context during the formation of the Modern Movement and the manifestations in built form and spatial expression during the period 1900-1970. The study has been on–going for several years and includes a literature search, local surveys (of unpublished and undocumented information) as well as photographs taken by the authors, sourced from architects or published material. It is argued that the Sudanese response to the International Style was in fact early experimentation in critical regionalism. The most notable architectural heritage in Sudan are the archaeological remains at Kerma and Napata as well as the remains of ancient Meroe about 180 km north of Khartoum. These cultures demonstrated sophistication in building materials and construction techniques. Due to climate changes, political changes and religious changes over a large stretch of time (642AD with the signing of the Bagt Treaty–1898 at the demise of the Mahdist era) the qualities of the built environment became more transient and rudimentary in character with a greater focus on manifesting tradition through body images, clothing and rituals that were not necessarily tied to a particular physical location rather than through monuments. With foreign interest in the strategic location of the Sudan, and as a part of the scramble for Africa, came specific stylistic and technical manifestations.

Keywords
Modern Movement, Modern architecture, Abdel Moneim Mustafa, Sudanese modern architecture.

Issue 44
Year 2011
Pages 77-80
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.52200/44.A.DQKNX1LV

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Returning to Center: Two Views of the Centro Internacional of Bogota (1959–1982)
Miguel Y. Mayorga, Maria Pia Fontana

Abstract
In the present–day city, both the architecture and the quality of its urban spaces are key issues for defining urban strategies that are aimed at improving the livability in the city, in its new metropolitan state. Given the inevitability of the changes that the city itself demonstrates, implicitly and explicitly, a return to the center, to the places with relationships between men and things and with humanized space, offers a possible solution. In this light, the Tequendama–Bavaria complex (1950–1982) within the International Center of Bogota is a center that reveals a series of urban values that may be used as reference points in the challenge of building a polycentric city and in the configuration of livable urban spaces. By analyzing different views since the origins of the city, we can appreciate the consolidation of a project based on the values of territorial and urban “mediation”, which are able to assemble rather than disperse, to integrate rather than segregate, invite rather than repel, and open up rather than close in.

Keywords
Modern Movement, Modern architecture, Centro Internacional of Bogota, Tequendama-Bavaria Complex, Modern urban space, Bogota modern architecture.

Issue 44
Year 2011
Pages 71-76
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.52200/44.A.0WC7MGOU

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Former American Embassy in Baghdad, Iraq, Designed by Josep Lluís Sert (1957–1959): A Ruin That Nobody Wants
Pedro Azara

Abstract
The future of Josep Lluís Sert’s masterpiece, the former American Embassy in Baghdad built in 1957, is in jeopardy. Not too many people consider that it has to be kept and restored. The state of the premises of the building, situated by the River Tigris and inside the so–called Green Zone (part of the city closed off to the general public), is threatened by a danger that also menaces other instances of Modern architecture in Baghdad, such as the Saddam Hussein stadium, which was built in the 1980s on the basis of a project by Le Corbusier dating from the late 1950s.

Keywords
Modern Movement, Modern architecture, Former American Embassy in Baghdad, Josep Lluís Sert, Baghdad modern architecture, Conservation of modern architecture.

Issue 44
Year 2011
Pages 68-70
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.52200/44.A.AFMPCZHZ

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